Things have been pretty quiet around here. Every now and then I see a story about rising prices somewhere in the world and think the story would make a great quick post for Inflation Watch. However, I usually do not feel the same sense of urgency I had from 2008 through about 2011 when I felt that rapid inflation was the imminent result of extremely accomodative monetary policy. Everywhere I look, commodities continue to decline in price. Most commodities reached a peak in 2011 and that peak of course had me convinced more than ever that inflation was soon to be a big problem.
Now, thanks to a friend, I am ever closer to accepting that inflation may not be a problem for an even longer time than I expected. He sent me a link to an article called “The Fed won’t taper as long as inflation is low” (by Rex Nutting at MarketWatch) that makes the convincing case that not only is inflation low, but the Federal Reserve has so far seemed powerless to generate the inflation it wants. (I recognize the limitations of government data on inflation, but I do not subscribe to theories that they are concocted specifically to hide true inflation). Incredibly, core inflation is apparently at its lowest point since 1959 (the core PCE price index):
Nutting also links to a paper from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York called “Drilling Down into Core Inflation: Goods versus Services.” In this paper, authors M. Henry Linder, Richard Peach, and Robert Rich demonstrate that more accurate inflation forecasts come from breaking out CPI into a services and a goods component. Nutting uses this as reference for the claim that the Fed is failing because of global disinflation. This global disinflation is responsible for a decline in the prices of the goods component. Services inflation is much more sensitive to domestic forces (we all know about skyrocketing healthcare and education costs). However, I am not sure where housing sits on this spectrum. It seems to provide a crossroad of forces given housing is not tradeable but foreigners are certainly free to overwhelm a housing market with cash. Foreign demand is reportedly helping to drive up housing prices in some of America’s hottest housing markets like in California and some parts of Florida.
All this to say that, for the moment, inflation is all but dead. But “Inflation Watch”, this blog, is NOT dead. I remain vigilant because I believe that when inflation DOES come, the Federal Reserve will either be ill-equipped to handle it and/or unwilling to snip it early for fear of causing a severe economic calamity. I am a gold investor, and I am eager for another chance to invest in the midst of a commodity crash (I am LONG overdue for an update to my framework for investing in commodity crashes/sell-offs).
The chart below from the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) shows that commodity prices remain at historically high levels, mostly thanks to rapacious demand from China. The current relative decline is what is helping to drive goods inflation down. The 2011 peak was well above the pre-crisis peak where prices have fallen now. Also note that prices are much more volatile. I suggest that this chart should remind us that commodity prices are a tinder box that can flare up at anytime. Aggressive rate-cutting by the RBA should also help keep prices aloft.
So stay tuned. Just when everyone finally concludes that the world has reached a golden age of disinflation where surpluses abound across the planet…that could be the exact moment the tide turns.
Be careful out there!
Full disclosure: long GLD
The economy in Australia continues to perform extremely well…so well, that the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) now feels compelled to take proactive steps to ward off higher than desired inflation risks:
“…the moderation in inflation that has been under way for the past two years is probably now close to ending…the economy is now subject to a large expansionary shock from the high terms of trade and has relatively modest amounts of spare capacity. Looking ahead, notwithstanding recent good results on inflation, the risk of inflation rising again over the medium term remains. At today’s meeting, the Board concluded that the balance of risks had shifted to the point where an early, modest tightening of monetary policy was prudent.”
Australia’s terms of trade are now around 60 year highs. The RBA also felt free to act given its assessment that “…concerns about the possibility of a larger than expected slowing in Chinese growth have lessened recently…The turmoil in financial markets earlier in the year has abated, though sentiment remains fragile.”
After holding interest rates steady for many months, it seems the RBA is getting ready for a series of fresh tightenings to maintain a lid on inflation pressures.
(Note: author owns FXA, the Rydex CurrencyShares Australian Dollar Trust ETF)
Tonight, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) took the first step of any country in the G20 to actually raise interest rates: “…the Board decided to raise the cash rate by 25 basis points to 3.25 per cent, effective 7 October 2009.” For those of us on inflation watch, this action is an encouraging sign that some central banks remain serious about protecting the value of their currency.
The RBA did not raise an alarm about inflation. Instead, it noted that easy monetary policy is no longer needed in Australia: “With growth likely to be close to trend over the year ahead, inflation close to target and the risk of serious economic contraction in Australia now having passed, the Board’s view is that it is now prudent to begin gradually lessening the stimulus provided by monetary policy.” The RBA noted three main encouraging economic signs:
- “Economic conditions in Australia have been stronger than expected and measures of confidence have recovered.”
- “Unemployment has not risen as far as had been expected.”
- “Housing credit growth has been solid and dwelling prices have risen appreciably over the past six months.”
The Australian dollar has appreciated 22% this year, making it one of the strongest currencies versus the U.S. dollar. The RBA took this rise into consideration in deciding to raise rates: “The exchange rate has appreciated considerably over the past year, which will dampen pressure on prices and constrain growth in the tradeables sector.”
Of course, interest rates are coming off 40-year lows, but it seems as though Australians can trust in the value of their money for some time to come.